History Of The Holy Land-The Greek and Hasmonean Periods

September 10, 2012

GREEK RULE

When Alexander the Great marched through the Levant in 333 B.C., he kept to the coastline in order to destroy the Persian navy and so bypassed Jewish areas. All of the Persian Empire fell under Greek control. After the death of Alexander (323 B.C.), a Greek family known as the Ptolemies took control of Egypt. The Levant fell under the control of Ptolemies as well. The letters of Zenon, a business manager under Ptolemy II Philadelphus (285-246 B.C.), reveal that there was active trade between the Levant and Egypt in various food staples and in slave girls (used as prostitutes). Meanwhile, the process of Hellenization moved forward, with many societal leaders embracing Greek culture and religion.

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Ancient armies of the Seleucid Empire.
(image credit: ancient-battles.com)

Ptolemaic rule in the region continued until 200 B.C., when it fell under the rule of the Seleucids, the Greek rulers of Syria. The Seleucid who took the Levant from the Ptolemies was Antiochus III (223-187 B.C.). After losing Asia Minor to Rome in 189 B.C., however, Antiochus III found his kingdom in financial straits. His son, Seleucus IV (187-175 B.C.) failed in an attempt to plunder the riches of the Jewish temple, but Antiochus IV (175-164 B.C.) did so around 170 B.C. Antiochus IV is the best remembered Seleucid in Jewish history. Around 168 B.C. he destroyed much of Jerusalem, set up an altar to Zeus in the temple and forbade the observance of Judaism. The Jews, under Judas Maccabeus and his brothers, defeated the Seleucids in successive campaigns. Judas died in battle in 160 B.C., but his brother Jonathan took the lead until his death in approximately 142 B.C. He was in turn followed by a third brother, Simon (rulers in the Maccabean line are referred to as “Hasmoneans”).

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Hasmonean Coins
(image credit: ancient-art.com)

HASMONEAN RULE

By this time Judea had become all but independent (Simon became in effect both king and high priest, although the Hasmonean rulers typically presented themselves as high priests only). Simon was followed by his son John Hyrcanus (134-104 B.C.), who extended the domain of Judah. After the brief reign of Aristobulus I (104-103 B.C.), the next Hasmonean leader was Alexander Jannaeus (103-76 B.C.), who continued to expand Judah’s domain through military means. Enormous ideological divisions developed in Jewish society, however—primarily between the more conservative and religious groups, led by the Pharisees, and the more Hellenized and aristocratic groups, led by the Sadducees. Alexander Jannaeus’s widow, Salome Alexandra, ruled after him, and with her death in 67 B.C. her sons Aristobulus II and Hyrcanus II fought for the throne.

(Next: The Roman and Byzantine Periods)


History Of The Holy Land-The Persian Period

August 30, 2012

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Papyrus Legal Document from Wadi el-Daliyeh
(image credit: cnes.cla.umn.edu)

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(article from the Archaeological Study Bible)

The Persian Period
The land was fairly desolate during the exile, with all but the poorest Jews scattered across the Near East from Egypt to Babylonia. Other peoples began to migrate into the land. Edomites, perhaps impelled by Arabs exerting pressure from the south, moved north. The Samaritans, a people of partly Israelite and partly pagan origin, soon emerged. In 539 B. C. Cyrus II of Persia conquered Babylon, and by 500 B.C. all of the Near East was in Persian hands. Jews began to return to the land, but the situation was discouraging and little progress was made until Ezra and Nehemiah arrived during the fifth century to rebuild Jerusalem and reestablish the temple.

Archaeologically, this has been a somewhat dark period, but there have been some important finds. For example, papyri from Samaria containing legal documents dating to approximately 375-335 B.C. have been discovered at Wadi el-Daliyeh in the central hill country of Israel. Numerous locations in the land have yielded evidence of Persian-era occupation levels, but, beyond the use of Persian royal names for dating purposes, little direct evidence of Persian influence has been found.

(Next:The Greek and Hasmonean Periods)


History Of The Holy Land-Israelite Culture

August 29, 2012

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Four-Room House
Better known as an Israelite pillared building, this typical structure has been found around the country throughout the Iron Age (1200-600 BC).

Subdivided by pillars into smaller rooms, these houses were often built against the city wall, with the house’s back wall forming a portion of the city’s casemate wall.
(photo from BiblePlaces.com)

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(article from the Archaeological Study Bible)

The Holy Land, at times variously named Canaan, Israel, the Levant or Palestine, has changed hands many times and has often been the center of conflict. The archaeology of Palestine is complex, in that it reflects all eras of the region’s long history.

ISRAELITE CULTURE
Although the Israelites appear to have invaded Canaan around 1400 B.C., they left almost no archaeological footprint until about 1200 B.C. During Iron I (usually dated c. 1200-1000 B.C.) the nation of Israel began to take shape. Examples of what appears to be Israelite material culture, such as the “four room house” and “collar-rim” pottery, appear in the archaeology of this time. Hundreds of villages in central Canaan dated to this period may be regarded as Israelite. The Philistines first appeared in Canaan at this time as part of the migration of the “Sea Peoples,” and examples of their material culture (such as a distinctive bichrome pottery that is comparable to a type of Mycenaean Greek pottery) began to appear.

Inasmuch as the Biblical record indicates that Israel was in the land and contending with various other enemies long before the Philistines became a threat, the argument that the Philistines and Israelites emerged in Canaan at about the same time is erroneous. Indeed, the presence of “Israel” on the Merneptah Stele (c. 1210 B.C.) strongly suggests that Israel was well established in the land prior to 1200 B.C., the beginning of the Iron I Age.

During the Judges period the Israelites were held together by their common covenant with God, but constant pressure from outside enemies led them to seek protection in stronger political unity (1 Sa 8:19-20). Saul was Israel’s first king, but the nation reached its cultural and political apex under David and Solomon (tenth century B.C.), when Israel dominated the entire Levant. Important physical remains from the united monarchy have been excavated at Hazor, Megiddo and Gezer, where triple-gated city entryways and casement walls illustrate the fortification work described in 1Kings 9:15.

Israelite supremacy was weakened by the division of the kingdom between Rehoboam and Jeroboam I (1 Ki 12) and shattered by the raid of the Egyptian Shishak (1 Ki 14:25-26). Indeed, Shishak’s attack seems to have been little more than a slash-and-burn campaign aimed at reducing Israel’s power vis-a-vis Egypt. The fortunes of Samaria (the northern kingdom of Israel) vacillated during the next two centuries. Samaria was sometimes powerful, under kings such as Hazael of Damascus. Samaria finally succumbed to Assyria around 720 B.C., and Judah, a relatively minor state, hung on until it was destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon in 586 B.C.

(Next: The Persian Period)


History Of The Holy Land-Pre-Israelite Culture

August 22, 2012

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Chalcolithic Pottery Jar from Jericho, 3800-3350 B.C.
(image from BiblicalArtifacts.com)

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(article from the Archaeological Study Bible)

The Holy Land, at times variously called Canaan, Israel, the Levant or Palestine, has changed hands many times and has often been the center of conflict. The archaeology of Palestine is complex, in that it reflects all eras of the region’s long history.

PRE-ISRAELITE CULTURE
Prehistoric and Early Bronze Age

Canaan was inhabited from prehistoric times. The earliest Stone Age culture was discovered at Mount Carmel, and remains of a later Stone Age culture, called the Natufian, were unearthed at Jericho. Agriculture and the production of pottery began during the Neolithic period, which is divided into “pre-pottery” and “pottery” periods. During the late fifth and fourth millenniums B.C. a culture called “Ghassulian” emerged in the southern Jordan Valley. Along with a site in Beersheba, this marked the beginning of the Chalcolithic Age in the region. Ghassulian pottery is remarkably advanced and attests to the sophistication of these early people.

The beginning of the Early Bronze Age (3400-2000 B.C.) in the Levant corresponds with late predynastic and early dynastic Egypt, around 3400-3000 B.C. Important Early Bronze I sites include Megiddo, Jericho, Ai and Beth Shan, all in northern or central Palestine; a more advanced culture developed in the southern part of the region somewhat later. An important Early Bronze II site in the south is Arad. The Early Bronze Age saw the beginning of urban culture in the land, with more or less autonomous city-states developing around major walled cities.

Around 2650-2350 B.C. a breakdown of unspecified origin occured in urban culture, especially in the north. One suggested reason is that nomadic Amorites invaded the land and disrupted the culture. It is questionable, however, whether this change in culture can be attributed to an Amorite migration or invasion, and today many scholars reject this suggestion. Some believe that environmental problems were a more likely cause; Abraham is said to have gone down to Egypt because of famine (Gen. 12:10). The decline of Early Bronze culture in Canaan may be related to the end of the Old Kingdom in Egypt in the twenty-second century B.C., as “Asiatics” (Semitic peoples from Canaan and Syria) pushed their way into Egypt.

Middle Bronze and Late Bronze Ages

A new urban culture, contemporary with the beginning of the Middle Kingdom in Egypt, arose at the start of the Middle Bronze Age (c. 2000-1550 B.C.) prominent cities included Tel Aphek, Byblos, Acco, Megiddo, Jericho, and Beth Shan. The art of pottery-making advanced significantly as potters learned to use the fast wheel to fashion fine vessels. The Egyptian Tale of Sinuhe provides a portrait if Canaanite life at this time. The Middle Bronze Age in Canaan also spans the Hyksos era of the Second Intermediate period in Egypt; some have argued for a Hyksos presence in Canaan, but this is unlikely.

There was a decline in the quality of material culture (especially pottery) in Canaan at the beginning of the Late Bronze Age (c. 1550-1200 B.C.), and there appears to have been a great deal of destruction during Late Bronze I (c. 1550-1400 B.C.). Egyptian rulers. Especially Thutmose III (c. 1479-1425 B.C.), made forays into Canaan to keep the city-states there subservient to Egyptian demands, and Egyptian influence is evident at a number of sites (e,g., Megiddo). Many scholars, on the basis of destruction levels for various Late Bronze II sites, have argued that the Israelite invasion under Joshua occurred around 1250 B.C., but this argument has largely collapsed since in fact no cities, with the possible exception of Hazor, have destruction levels that fit this interpretation.

(Next: Israelite Culture)


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