Did You Know?-Misc From Matthew

September 9, 2012

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Whitewashed Tomb (Matthew 23:27)

DID YOU KNOW?
(from the Archaeological Study Bible)

• There were no sexual relations during a Jewish betrothal period, yet it was a much more binding relationship than a modern engagement—breakable only by divorce (Matthew 1:18).

• No one living in the desert hesitated to eat insects, and locusts were among the ceremonially clean foods of which the Jews were free to partake (Matthew 3:4).

• Most of the salt used in Israel came from the Dead Sea and was full of impurities, causing it to lose some of its flavor (Matthew 5:13).

• People in ancient times commonly hid valuables in fields (e.g., when a marauding army approached), since there were no banks (Matthew 13:44).

• A person who stepped on a grave became ceremonially unclean, so graves were whitewashed to make them easily visible, especially at night (Matthew 23:27).

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History Of The Holy Land-The Persian Period

August 30, 2012

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Papyrus Legal Document from Wadi el-Daliyeh
(image credit: cnes.cla.umn.edu)

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(article from the Archaeological Study Bible)

The Persian Period
The land was fairly desolate during the exile, with all but the poorest Jews scattered across the Near East from Egypt to Babylonia. Other peoples began to migrate into the land. Edomites, perhaps impelled by Arabs exerting pressure from the south, moved north. The Samaritans, a people of partly Israelite and partly pagan origin, soon emerged. In 539 B. C. Cyrus II of Persia conquered Babylon, and by 500 B.C. all of the Near East was in Persian hands. Jews began to return to the land, but the situation was discouraging and little progress was made until Ezra and Nehemiah arrived during the fifth century to rebuild Jerusalem and reestablish the temple.

Archaeologically, this has been a somewhat dark period, but there have been some important finds. For example, papyri from Samaria containing legal documents dating to approximately 375-335 B.C. have been discovered at Wadi el-Daliyeh in the central hill country of Israel. Numerous locations in the land have yielded evidence of Persian-era occupation levels, but, beyond the use of Persian royal names for dating purposes, little direct evidence of Persian influence has been found.

(Next:The Greek and Hasmonean Periods)


History Of The Holy Land-Israelite Culture

August 29, 2012

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Four-Room House
Better known as an Israelite pillared building, this typical structure has been found around the country throughout the Iron Age (1200-600 BC).

Subdivided by pillars into smaller rooms, these houses were often built against the city wall, with the house’s back wall forming a portion of the city’s casemate wall.
(photo from BiblePlaces.com)

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(article from the Archaeological Study Bible)

The Holy Land, at times variously named Canaan, Israel, the Levant or Palestine, has changed hands many times and has often been the center of conflict. The archaeology of Palestine is complex, in that it reflects all eras of the region’s long history.

ISRAELITE CULTURE
Although the Israelites appear to have invaded Canaan around 1400 B.C., they left almost no archaeological footprint until about 1200 B.C. During Iron I (usually dated c. 1200-1000 B.C.) the nation of Israel began to take shape. Examples of what appears to be Israelite material culture, such as the “four room house” and “collar-rim” pottery, appear in the archaeology of this time. Hundreds of villages in central Canaan dated to this period may be regarded as Israelite. The Philistines first appeared in Canaan at this time as part of the migration of the “Sea Peoples,” and examples of their material culture (such as a distinctive bichrome pottery that is comparable to a type of Mycenaean Greek pottery) began to appear.

Inasmuch as the Biblical record indicates that Israel was in the land and contending with various other enemies long before the Philistines became a threat, the argument that the Philistines and Israelites emerged in Canaan at about the same time is erroneous. Indeed, the presence of “Israel” on the Merneptah Stele (c. 1210 B.C.) strongly suggests that Israel was well established in the land prior to 1200 B.C., the beginning of the Iron I Age.

During the Judges period the Israelites were held together by their common covenant with God, but constant pressure from outside enemies led them to seek protection in stronger political unity (1 Sa 8:19-20). Saul was Israel’s first king, but the nation reached its cultural and political apex under David and Solomon (tenth century B.C.), when Israel dominated the entire Levant. Important physical remains from the united monarchy have been excavated at Hazor, Megiddo and Gezer, where triple-gated city entryways and casement walls illustrate the fortification work described in 1Kings 9:15.

Israelite supremacy was weakened by the division of the kingdom between Rehoboam and Jeroboam I (1 Ki 12) and shattered by the raid of the Egyptian Shishak (1 Ki 14:25-26). Indeed, Shishak’s attack seems to have been little more than a slash-and-burn campaign aimed at reducing Israel’s power vis-a-vis Egypt. The fortunes of Samaria (the northern kingdom of Israel) vacillated during the next two centuries. Samaria was sometimes powerful, under kings such as Hazael of Damascus. Samaria finally succumbed to Assyria around 720 B.C., and Judah, a relatively minor state, hung on until it was destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon in 586 B.C.

(Next: The Persian Period)


History Of The Holy Land-Pre-Israelite Culture

August 22, 2012

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Chalcolithic Pottery Jar from Jericho, 3800-3350 B.C.
(image from BiblicalArtifacts.com)

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(article from the Archaeological Study Bible)

The Holy Land, at times variously called Canaan, Israel, the Levant or Palestine, has changed hands many times and has often been the center of conflict. The archaeology of Palestine is complex, in that it reflects all eras of the region’s long history.

PRE-ISRAELITE CULTURE
Prehistoric and Early Bronze Age

Canaan was inhabited from prehistoric times. The earliest Stone Age culture was discovered at Mount Carmel, and remains of a later Stone Age culture, called the Natufian, were unearthed at Jericho. Agriculture and the production of pottery began during the Neolithic period, which is divided into “pre-pottery” and “pottery” periods. During the late fifth and fourth millenniums B.C. a culture called “Ghassulian” emerged in the southern Jordan Valley. Along with a site in Beersheba, this marked the beginning of the Chalcolithic Age in the region. Ghassulian pottery is remarkably advanced and attests to the sophistication of these early people.

The beginning of the Early Bronze Age (3400-2000 B.C.) in the Levant corresponds with late predynastic and early dynastic Egypt, around 3400-3000 B.C. Important Early Bronze I sites include Megiddo, Jericho, Ai and Beth Shan, all in northern or central Palestine; a more advanced culture developed in the southern part of the region somewhat later. An important Early Bronze II site in the south is Arad. The Early Bronze Age saw the beginning of urban culture in the land, with more or less autonomous city-states developing around major walled cities.

Around 2650-2350 B.C. a breakdown of unspecified origin occured in urban culture, especially in the north. One suggested reason is that nomadic Amorites invaded the land and disrupted the culture. It is questionable, however, whether this change in culture can be attributed to an Amorite migration or invasion, and today many scholars reject this suggestion. Some believe that environmental problems were a more likely cause; Abraham is said to have gone down to Egypt because of famine (Gen. 12:10). The decline of Early Bronze culture in Canaan may be related to the end of the Old Kingdom in Egypt in the twenty-second century B.C., as “Asiatics” (Semitic peoples from Canaan and Syria) pushed their way into Egypt.

Middle Bronze and Late Bronze Ages

A new urban culture, contemporary with the beginning of the Middle Kingdom in Egypt, arose at the start of the Middle Bronze Age (c. 2000-1550 B.C.) prominent cities included Tel Aphek, Byblos, Acco, Megiddo, Jericho, and Beth Shan. The art of pottery-making advanced significantly as potters learned to use the fast wheel to fashion fine vessels. The Egyptian Tale of Sinuhe provides a portrait if Canaanite life at this time. The Middle Bronze Age in Canaan also spans the Hyksos era of the Second Intermediate period in Egypt; some have argued for a Hyksos presence in Canaan, but this is unlikely.

There was a decline in the quality of material culture (especially pottery) in Canaan at the beginning of the Late Bronze Age (c. 1550-1200 B.C.), and there appears to have been a great deal of destruction during Late Bronze I (c. 1550-1400 B.C.). Egyptian rulers. Especially Thutmose III (c. 1479-1425 B.C.), made forays into Canaan to keep the city-states there subservient to Egyptian demands, and Egyptian influence is evident at a number of sites (e,g., Megiddo). Many scholars, on the basis of destruction levels for various Late Bronze II sites, have argued that the Israelite invasion under Joshua occurred around 1250 B.C., but this argument has largely collapsed since in fact no cities, with the possible exception of Hazor, have destruction levels that fit this interpretation.

(Next: Israelite Culture)


Amen: 2500 B.C., Egypt

August 19, 2012

(article from “Extraordinary Origins Of Everyday Things” by Charles Panati)

One of the most familiar and frequently used of all religious words, “amen” appears in both early Christian and Moslem writings. The word makes thirteen appearances in the Hebrew Bible; 119 in the New Testament.

To the Hebrews, the word meant “so it is”—expressing assent or agreement, and also signifying truth. Thus, a Hebrew scholar terminating a speech or sermon with “amen” assured his audience that his statements were trustworthy and reliable.

The word originated in Egypt, around 2500 B.C. To the Egyptians, Amun meant “the hidden one” and was the name of their highest deity, at one time worshipped throughout the Middle East. As later cultures invoked the god Jupiter with exclamation “By Jove!” the Egyptians called on their deity: “By Amun!” It was the Hebrews who adopted the word, gave it a new meaning, and passed it on to the Christians.


Praying Hands—The Origin Of

August 8, 2012

Hands Joined In Prayer:
9th Century, Europe

“For our ancestors, one of the most ancient and reverential gestures that accompanied prayer was the spreading of arms and hands heavenward. In time, the arms were pulled in, folded across the breast, wrists intersecting above the heart. Each of these gestures possesses an intrinsic logic and obviousness of intent: God resided in the heavens; the heart was the seat of emotions.

The still later practice of joining hands in an apex seems less obvious, if not puzzling.

It is mentioned nowhere in the Bible. It appeared in the Christian Church only in the ninth century. Subsequently, sculptors and painters incorporated it into scenes that predated its origin—which, it turns out, has nothing to do with religion or worship, and owes much to subjugation and servitude.

Religious historians trace the gesture back to the act of shackling a prisoner’s hands together. Although the binding vines, ropes, or handcuffs continued to serve their own law-and-order function, the joined hands came to symbolize man’s submission to his creator.

Substantial historical evidence indicates that the joining of hands became a standard, widely practiced gesture long before it was appropriated and formalizd by the Christian Church. Before waving a white flag signaled surrender, a captured Roman could avert immediate slaughter by affecting the shackled-hands posture.

For the early Greeks, the gesture held the magic power to bind occult spirits until they complied with a high priest’s dictates. In the Middle Ages, feudal lords adopted the joining of hands as an action by which their vassals did homage and pledged fealty.

From such diverse practices, all with a common intent, Christianity assumed the gesture as a sign of man’s total obedience to divine authority. Later, many writers within the Christian Church offered, and encouraged, a more pious and picturesque origin: joined hands represented a church’s pointed steeple.”

(excerpt from ‘Extraordinary Origins Of Everyday Things’ by Charles Panati)


Not A Myth

July 29, 2012

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(Teacher: Bill Crowder)

Read: 1 Corinthians 15:1-11

The good news of the gospel is not rooted in mythology or legend, but in verified fact, and it’s the greatest story ever told. Paul wrote that the most important event in human history—the resurrection of Jesus Christ—is supported by actual eyewitnesses. While listing disciples who had seen the risen Christ, Paul punctuated the list of eyewitnesses by writing, “After that He was seen by over five hundred brethren at once, of whom the greater part remain to the present, but some have fallen asleep” (1 Cor. 15:6). At the time of Paul’s writing, many of those witnesses were still alive and available for questioning.

The resurrection of Christ is not a myth. It is the factual pivot-point of history.


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